Healing as G-d’s Love

Healing as G-d’s Love

It began as a typical craniosacral session–my client lying quietly on the massage table. But as I placed my hands under her occiput and sacrum, she suddenly burst into tears. “Don’t worry,” she said. “You didn’t do anything wrong. These are tears of joy. “Morning and afternoon, morning and afternoon….I have asked G-d to show me His Love.”  She lifted her arms heavenward, exuberant. “And now, I feel His Love!” She turned toward me. “I think your mission as a healer is to connect people to G-d!” she said. I was a bit stunned. Her advice rang true and was even exciting but…I had to travel halfway around the world, from Israel to Seattle, to learn my mission? Could no one in Israel tell me? Yet I learned in that session what underlies all things. When we remove peoples’ physical and emotional blocks, all that’s left is G-d–and His love with which He created and sustains us and the world. Stages of Healing We as healers see this happening in stages. First the body releases tension and feels more relaxed. Falsehoods and fears fall away and the wonder of who we are is revealed and comes alive and is true for us. And then…the opening to natural connection with the spiritual world. (You can read more at Do Angels Heal). Healing Session Over This wonder in our clients’ shining faces signals us that the session is over–that we have reached maximum and prescribed healing for that day.  Brandon Bays calls it the moment of Shining Eyes–when the healing session is complete. To me, it’s like the client drops the black cloud and takes up the rainbow.

The client drops the black cloud and takes up the rainbow.

The Veil Brigitte Stzab, Family Constellations teacher, once asked me, “Don’t you feel the veil [between the physical and spiritual worlds] is getting thinner?” To be perfectly honest…I’m an Aquarius. What veil? I often feel like I walk around Up There like someone strolling through a garden. And that’s why it’s important for me to lend a hand to others who need to be Up There too.

Guided Healing: Healing by Analogy

Guided Healing: Healing by Analogy

“I set before you Life and Death, Blessing and Curse. Choose Life…for you and your offspring.”   Devarim/Deut. 30:19

We follow false gods: misguided love, confusion, dysfunctional family patterns, fear. We befriend falsehood, emotional tyranny, emptiness, or self-effacement. We think we are doing so to survive, and survive well. But our bodies know better–and react with pain, blockage, and stress.

In Guided Healing, we step back and see our choices from a higher place. We affirm the good quality in us from which the misguided dysfunction emanates. We use the power of analogy: just as we can choose Death and Pain, we can choose G-d and Life. Just as we see someone else choosing G-d and Life, we can choose G-d and Life as well.

Analogies help release our Free Will to choose to abandon false loyalties. In exposing false gods for what they are, we return to truth, freedom, love, creativity, healing–and our true souls.


“My husband and father are trying to force me into a psychiatric hospital,” said “Dalia” over the phone. Dalia’s cousin, a client of mine, recommended she see me. This mother of 5 had had three breakdowns since the age of 16, in which she didn’t know where she was and became dysfunctional for long periods of time. Hubby and Dad wanted her treated “properly,” with drugs.

I knew that I must help her, that she needed my help, and that ultimately she would be a great healer herself. I thought back to a student formerly on drugs for being bipolar, but when she came to Midreshet B’erot Bat Ayin and found Torah and spirituality, she no longer needed her drugs. Dalia’s guardian angels were obviously asking for more than pills.

I treated Dalia for 2 1/2 hours. During the session, I was “told” that her breakdowns stemmed from an issue of abandonment by her mother. Indeed, it turned out later that her first breakdown at 16 happened during a 3-day high school tiyul shnati (field trip). Previously, she had been an A student, she said.

I looked back in time at her mother, her mother’s mother, her mother’s mother’s mother–trying to find one mother among Dalia’s ancestors who had been stable. Usually in an Ashkenazi family you don’t go back more than 4–or at most 7–generations before finding an intact family that can source generational love.

“I’ve gone back 12 or 13 generations on your mother’s side,” I told her, amazed, “and I did not find ONE generation that didn’t have a serious death.”

“Oh, yes,” she brushed off the information. “Didn’t you know that life in Yemen was very hard?”

I knew Yemenites ate an inedible fenugreek spread that was supposed to be so healthy the women would have babies into their 50s. What no one mentions is that so many Yemenite Jewesses didn’t make it to their 50s.

We continued to work and, just before my taxi arrived, her Third Eye opened.

She called me the following week from the psychiatric hospital. “What is the Third Eye?” she asked. I did my best in my 6th grade level Hebrew. “The Third Eye helps you see things in a deeper way, with more bina (understanding).”

I tried an example. “Let’s say you see a boy walking along. With your normal vision, you might just notice he is a boy walking. But with your Third Eye, you might notice that he is a good person, that he wants to do good in the world, and he is waiting for someone to show him how.”

“What if I see he is doing something bad?” she asked me nervously.

“You look at his qualities deeper, with your Third Eye,” I explained. “You tell him, ‘Oh, I see you are a good fighter. Did you know you can fight for good in the world, or you can choose to use your quality for bad–like to beat up small children.’ Then you help him direct his energies for good.”

This was simple. She liked it. But she still felt unsettled. “How will I know how to take care of my children?”

“How do you WANT to take care of your children?”

“With warmth, love….”

“What is stopping you from taking care of your children with warmth and love?”

“I am here, in this hospital….”

“Why are you in the hospital?”

“Because I don’t know how to function,” she answered, miserably. “What if I see myself doing something bad?”

Hashem had already provided the answer.  “Then you tell yourself, with your Third Eye: ‘I have this quality. I can use it for good or for bad.’ And then you tell yourself how to use it for good.”

She was smiling over the phone. She understood now. “When will I get out of this place?” she asked me.

“Ask your neshama.”

“My neshama says, ‘In a week.'”

“Ask your neshama why you will get out in a week.”

“Because I will request it,” she answered.

“Do you feel you will be able to leave in a week and take care of your children?”

“Oh, yes!”


Dina was worried what to do next. She wanted to go to India but was afraid.

“Why are you afraid of going to India?” I asked.

“I might stop being religious,” she replied.

“Why do you think you might stop being religious?”

“Because I had a religious friend who went to India and she came back non-religious.”

“Ask her neshama, from your heart to her heart, why she became non-religious.”

“She feels free,” answered Dina.

“What does she need to feel free from?”

“Oh, everything. She can do what she feels like now.”

“What can she do now that she couldn’t do before?”

“She says she feels ‘cool’ now.”

“Uh-huh. Ask her what else makes her feel cool. Maybe she is very intuitive?”

“Oh, yes, she is very intuitive. She helps a lot of people!”

“Ask her why she doesn’t use her intuition to feel cool.”

“She does.”

“Ask her how she would rather feel cool–act non-religious or use her intuition to help people.”

“She’s thinking.”

It was clear that our exchange had helped clarify values for our friend’s neshama. Dina seemed ready to go down a more fortuitous path. But there was more–an analogy….

“Dina, we just showed what you will do when you get to India. You will find Israelis there like your friend who have lost their way and are trying to find themselves. You will use your own intuition to help them return to Judaism and to their own neshamot.

“Wow, that’s exciting!” said Dina. “I am really looking forward to going now!”

Young Mother from Serbia

“Are you healthy?” asked a young mother in a worried voice.

“Yes, why?”

“Well, my grandfather is sick and I was worried you are too.”

Her logic eluded me but clearly she needed someone to talk to.

“I’m not sick but maybe there IS something to talk about. Would you like to find a shady place to sit?”

She nodded gratefully. Her grandfather back in Serbia was ill from alcohol. He beat her grandmother often and she was upset over this, but more upset that she might lose her grandfather to his illness.

“Why are you upset to lose your grandfather if he beats your grandmother?”

She thought for a moment. “Because if I’m not upset, then people will think I am disloyal.”

“Do you believe in G-d?” I asked.

“Oh, YES!”

“Then tell those people, from your heart to their heart, ‘I am extremely loyal. And from now on, I am loyal to myself, my family, and to G-d.'”

The redirect worked. We had affirmed her loyalty but only toward Good. She looked relaxed and happy. A proud and satisfied smile swept across her face as she felt her self-worth and her new freedom from others’ twisted and tyrannical demands on her right to choose to whom to be loyal.




Do Our Ancestors Still Love Us?

Do Our Ancestors Still Love Us?

Have you ever really thought about your ancestors? Grandparents–yes, but how about their grandparents, and their grandparents, back through the generations?

They are waiting for us–to do good in the world, to correct their misdeeds, to bring holiness and salvation to our entire family structure. In Family Constellations, we meet these souls and bring love and flowing gratitude naturally into our systems.

But did you know you can see or contact these ancestors in a Craniosacral Energy Healing or Guided Healing session? Here’s how it works:

You remember from Do Angels Heal? that angels often show up in the Craniosacral treatment room in order to help their loved one or witness their healing. These angels, as we saw, may be ancestors.

“Miriam” and “Yocheved”

Sometimes they come to deliver messages that they are embarrassed to say in person. Example: “Yocheved,” a student in one of my Craniosacral Energy Healing workshops, practiced on her partner “Miriam.” Now Miriam and her husband had been among the first Jews let out of Russia. When they arrived in Israel, they did not know if they would ever see their birth families again. However, perestroika happened and all their immediate family members were eventually reunited in Israel.

Yocheved did not know this story. Yet during the practice, Yocheved began to smile softly. Later she told Miriam: Your parents were in the room. I saw their hair but couldn’t see their faces. But I knew who they were. They want you to know how proud they are of you that you brought them and your entire family to Israel!

Feeling this appreciation was apparently very important to MIriam’s healing, but for whatever reason the message would not have been either delivered or accepted in real life. Miriam’s parents’ souls chose to have an emissary deliver the message during a Craniosacral healing session.

Who Visits?

Ancestors as well as significant others often show up during Guided Healing sessions (in person, by phone, or google-chat/hangouts). We described in Energy Healing: Is It Kosher? a recently deceased beloved grandmother, “Granny,” whose neshama (soul) would hover around the ceiling and give answers to long-sought questions that troubled my client. Normally it is the deceased mother’s mother’s neshama who comes to help but it can be any significant other, dead or alive. Frequent visitors to female clients are neshamot (souls) of mother or siblings; old boyfriends, still living; or deceased fathers–all asking forgiveness or volunteering love and appreciation that they failed to convey in real life.


The volunteerism is often astounding. We learn in Chana Luk’s Ohr HaEmuna healing to invite a troubling neshama in the room in order to fix some wrong between that neshama and the client. But here, in Guided Healing sessions, we deal only with neshamot who have already entered the room to help us, or who step forward from a group to help us when we ask for a volunteer. Sometimes so many neshamot are standing in line ready to help that their messages fill a one or two-hour session!

Neshamot & Their Personalities

Another astounding piece is how the neshamot communicate to us in their pre-death fashion.  The neshama of an impatient or suspicious person may communicate with us abruptly or in a withholding way until they trust us.

Yet their true love and concern, even of a suspicious person, will often come through in the end.  One such suspicious neshama was always present but rarely forthcoming without our initiating a lot of questions. Such encounters felt slow and unjoyous. Suddenly, one day, when we had not turned to her for a long time, we asked a question and she replied, in her still less-than-welcoming but nevertheless now-interested manner, “I was waiting for you to ask that!”  Of course she could have volunteered the information like a “normal” neshama, but that was not her way!

Channeling through One Individual for the Good of All

Which highlights how much the neshamot are waiting to help us and enthusiastically welcome our participation. In many families, my client is the only one who is willing to listen and so the ancestors must do all of the family’s helping and problem-resolution through that one individual.

Getting Stuck

Sometimes we have a question and no one is there to help or answer. We ask if we should proceed and, if yes, we ask, Is anyone available to answer this question?

Gradually we will see a scene of 3 or 4 rows of participants like in the old game shows on TV. Usually we will see a volunteer’s hand raised in the back row. Although it is not entirely necessary to know, we try to identify the neshama. Then we ask the question and proceed as normal.

Healing before Mashiach

What is the result of all this communication with neshamot? The first thing you notice is a feeling of peace, well-being, and liveliness in the client’s face. They know without a shadow of doubt with whom they have been in contact and know they have help from Shamayim (Heavens). Their slights and insults and neglect and other wrongs they have received in this lifetime have been forgiven through the visits of penitent and caring souls–and the true underlying love and endearment have been expressed in ways meaningful to the client. Their life has been set right.

So some neshamot come to seek forgiveness or to express love or to set things right. Others come to advise us of our current path (see Measuring Healing) or decision-making forks in the road. Still others, like “Granny,” offer repositories of past knowledge.  All these activities, and more, are necessary in these days preceding the Mashiach for us to heal, and heal well, with love and gratitude.

We have the power to change our family’s past and future. The ancestors’ hands are tied, so to speak, as they are no longer living in this world. All they can do is guide and advise. This they are more than willing to do–if only they can find among us living–someone who is willing to listen.



Masks, Angels, & Homeopathy

Masks, Angels, & Homeopathy

When we first bought Lizzie–a beautiful chocolate brown Alpine goat–she was so skittish that you couldn’t get near her. She would run away and jump onto something high or hide behind the hayfeeder.

That is, until she met Eera, our homeopathic veterinarian. You see, in our section of Israel, many goats get abscesses. Lizzie did too. My landlady, from whom I had bought Lizzie, said airily, “Just wave your hand and the energy will break up the abscess.”  I did what I could, being an energy healer, but nothing worked. For 9 months, the abscess got bigger and bigger. Finally, a vet visited for another reason, saw Lizzie, and said the abscess was very dangerous. Eera said simply, “I know what to do for the abscess.”

“How much do you charge for lancing an abscess?” I asked.

“Let’s first see the abscess,” she replied quietly.

“No, I don’t want to begin until I know your price,” I said. I didn’t want to have any misunderstanding about why I was hiring her.

She refused to tell me her price for lancing. “Let’s just see,” she said, leaving me and entering the pen. I lingered behind to lock the gate after us.

A moment later, she returned to me, triumphant.  “Ein tzorech–there’s no need!” she said.

“There’s no need for what?” I asked.

“There’s no need to lance the abscess. It’s opened on its own.”  Sure enough, the abscess was open and draining.

“What? Did you do anything to her?” I asked, in disbelief. There had not been time to catch Lizzie, much less treat the abscess, in the short time it had taken to latch the gate.

“No, it opened on its own,” she replied.

“Eera, that abscess hasn’t healed in 9 months. In fact, it has only gotten worse and worse. You mean to tell me that all you did was walk into the pen and the abscess opened on its own?”

Tamid kacha–it’s always like that.”

Tamid kacha?” I asked. I was confused.


I began to understand why Eera did not have a set price for lancing abscesses. It was because she never had to.

“Eera,” I begged her. “How does that work?”

Lo yadat sheh al kateif kol rofeh yosheiv mal’ach?” she asked. Didn’t you know that on the shoulder of every doctor sits an angel?

I was stunned. But that was only the beginning. Eera gave Lizzie a constitutional remedy to strengthen her immune system. It didn’t, in the end, totally prevent more abscesses, but it did fix something else….

After a few days, Lizzie was no longer nervous Nellie. She was totally relaxed, sensuous, always approaching me with her face tilted up at an angle so I could give her a facial massage. She then took a full-body massage–up to 40 minutes long–every day. She had turned into a pussy cat.

Eera came for a follow-up a few days later.  “Eera,” I said, “Something has happened to Lizzie. She’s not crazy anymore.”

“Yes,” she replied. “I came to see her a few days ago, and I looked around and couldn’t find Lizzie!” she joked.

“But Eera, what happened?”

“That old behavior–that was just a mask,” she explained. “The remedy lifted the mask and now we can see who she was all along.”

Clarity: How Do You Know Something Is True?

Clarity: How Do You Know Something Is True?

Q: How do you know if your information is accurate? A: We healers need a dizzying amount of data for our clients: Which food, supplement, herb, homeopathic remedy, brand? Which form (magnesium citrate v magnesium orotate)? Organic or regular? Dosage and frequency? And the wild cards, like preparation history! I once considered buying a particular organic bread but it tested as a no-go. Delving deeper into the energy of the loaf, I discovered that the baker’s fit of anger that day was still reverberating in the bread. The shopkeeper threw out the loaf. What about non-oral fixes? One client wakes up at 4a every morning with the same allergic reaction. How do we narrow down which rug or curtain to remove? Another client has constant back pain. How can we tell if she needs a good float in the Dead Sea, a Family Constellation, a Craniosacral session, or to move forward on an advanced degree, new business, or artwork? Here’s how we begin.

Muscle Testing

Through the 1990s, we would muscle test (“applied kinesiology”) on foods or remedies. The client would hold the item in question in one hand and the practitioner would push down on the straightened other arm to see if the body felt stronger or weaker. Some practitioners used a pendulum instead. Now muscle testing is easy. As we get closer to Mashiach, we can test on far more than just foods or supplements. We don’t need the item or even the client in the room. We can use our whole body or a minor flick of our hands as an instant pendulum to “surrogate test” what will bring good health for someone over the phone or on a different continent. We can also peer into a scene to read the energy surrounding the problem and pinpoint a solution when we need a more complete or embracing answer than just yes or no. But I never do any of this without first getting clear.

Getting Clear: Kavanot (Intentions)

I begin the day by stating kavanot (intentions that clear) from Chana Luk’s Ohr HaEmuna textbook. Some are Hebrew affirmations and some are Hebrew prayers and tehilim (psalms). I know which ones apply to me because my teacher, Efrat Dahan, surrogate tested for me. Sometimes, I need to add or omit clearings (fine-tuned by another healer). And I do not do healing work–even surrogate testing–before davening shacharit (morning prayers).


Sometimes, while working on an issue by yourself or with another healer, all your answers will start not making sense! Whoever is clearer should test on where the interference is coming from and what to do about it. Standard physical cleansings may be smudging (burning) sage in the house or lighting candles. If necessary, get advice or more information from a third healer who may be clearer. Once, I was blocked for 6 weeks and nothing worked to clear the blocks! Really annoying!

Getting Confirmation

Efrat Dahan also taught me to pick up the phone in the middle of a difficult session and ask a healing friend, “What do you get on this client?” Or you can text or email a healing friend for confirmation on info you received. Eventually, life will confirm the truth–it’s just a matter of faith (and nerves) until that confirmation appears.


Eventually you will start to hear, visualize, or know unsolicited information that will help yourself or your client. Our helpers in Shamayim (Heavens) are only too excited to finally have someone who wants to listen and help, and so they will open the floodgates and throw to you as much information as you can absorb. It is really good to have a written record of what you hear, since the topics may be more far-ranging and detailed than you had thought possible or can even remember later. I favor using Google Chat (Hangouts) or some other written communication for sessions–when the communication is over you can review any important information or find new opportunities for knowledge expansion in your next session. Truly, you can do some of this by yourself. I noticed this when doing Morning Pages (created by Julia Cameron, author of The Artist’s Way).  Since I always seem to need answers, I would just write out my questions and listen for answers. Writing the answers, I would ask more questions. And so on. After a while I went into email mode. I just write myself an email, put in the subject line “Healing,” and start asking questions and writing answers. Whenever I get stuck, I just call, write, or text another healing friend to fill in the missing words. Sometimes when I don’t get answers, the problem is that I asked the wrong question. If this happens to you, just write, “What should I ask instead?” and you may be surprised to find yourself hearing answers that put you right back on track again. Being of a suspicious nature, I usually muscle test on any information that comes through channeling to double check.  The channeling has never shown to be wrong.  I will give you examples of the progression from simple muscle testing to major channeling in future case studies. Just know that you can “close the circle” by muscle testing on the channeling or asking a healing friend what they get.


I did some extra one-on-one training after Craniosacral I. Sitting behind the patient, I began to check for craniosacral rhythm in the head. “Ground yourself,” warned my coach, Nancy Westphal. “Clients can often tell when you’re ungrounded.” That was really scary. I had assumed I could sneak by, ungrounded, without being detected. I did a standard self-grounding: Imagine a line goes from your lower back into the center of the earth. That grounds you! “Good,” said Nancy. I was amazed that, from across the room, she could tell when I was grounded and when I wasn’t. Grounding is another help for clarity. I have not found that grounding gives more accurate answers during muscle testing. The answers simply don’t come if I’m not grounded.

Goat Milk

If you live in Israel but were not born here, you may need to drink a cup of goat milk every now and then for clarity. Taking care of goats is very grounding and you may need to take care of them too!

Clarity for You!

What do YOU do for clarity? I’d love to hear!  

Do Angels Heal?

Do Angels Heal?

Here I was in Hawaii for my first time, visiting my sister-in-law Rachel. Rachel had found me a massage table so I could see clients. She put the table in a cute little bungalow, under a window facing the greenery. Everything looked quite normal when Rachel’s friend asked to see me.

I started the standard 10 Step Protocol. I listened deeply and her body responded–self-correcting and then…reenacting and releasing scenes of being abused and choked. It was not your typical Hijack response. We were both surprised and had no explanation. Preparing for the Dural Rock, I moved my left hand under her occiput (back of her head) and right hand under her sacrum. Gazing absent-mindedly through the wall, I noticed something outside the bungalow striding toward me. It was an angel–a Christian one–tall, pure white, wings strongly attached to the back, no talk and all business.

The angel walks RIGHT THROUGH the wall, stands before me silently, reaches his hands out for the body–I mean the client–and takes the body as I lift her up weightlessly into his arms. Now, of course, this whole time the client is actually lying on the massage table with my left hand under her head and my right hand under her hips, but in the VISION–a lot more is happening!!!!  The angel turns around, still carrying her in his arms, and walks RIGHT BACK THROUGH the wall again. Through the window I see he has carried her to a spiritual pool of water, waterfall in the background (this IS Hawaii, after all), where she is now seated on a chair with a man scrubbing her back….

I pretend nothing has happened and finish the session. At the end, I tell her, a little hesitantly, “You know…when I was beginning the Dural Rock, this angel came and….” I tell her the whole story.

She is silent for only a moment. “Who was the man washing me?” she demands to know.

I think for a moment. “It’s not your father,” I say slowly…. “It’s not your brother…. It IS a relative…. Oh, I know! It’s your uncle!”

Was she mad! “No, it’s not,” she retorts. “It’s St. Germain. I ALWAYS pray to St. Germain!”

I’m into this treatment a little deeper than my teacher had prepared me for. But I’m not ready to give up–something hasn’t been revealed yet. I’m getting that it’s her uncle; she’s getting that it’s St. Germain. How can this be?

“Ask if St. Germain was at one time your uncle,” I tell her. She muscle tests.

“YES!” She replies. She glows; the whole room seems to light up. The whole session, in which we cleared her deep blocks and traumas, had been leading up to her realizing that her precious St. Germain had also found her precious, that they were forever linked in love and caring. The session’s crowning healing was her experiencing her divine worthiness, her emotional closeness to those spiritual beings who take good care of her.

She has more to tell me. “The past few months I had been praying to be cleansed, that G-d would cleanse me, and I didn’t care what it would take. When I heard you were coming to Hawaii, I knew I had to see you. Now I know why.”

A few months later, I was treating the head of a massage school. By then, I had noticed that craniosacral therapy is a virtual 3-ring circus. I do one thing with my hands; some whoosh of energy comes from the earth behind me and loops over my right shoulder and works on the client independently–usually around the legs; and a huge hand hovers over the person’s abdomen.  All this, and more, was happening with this client.

“I think you had some angels in the treatment,” I said quietly at the end.

“Oh, I’m sure I did,” she said airily. “Clients bring their own angels with them.”

“They do?” I was surprised that no one had mentioned this in Craniosacral I. It was the missing link for me. Of course a Christian would bring in a Christian angel, and someone else would bring in another angel meaningful to them. And of course I was likely to be unfamiliar with these angels, as they were not mine.

So I was really surprised when, at the end of the summer, my Craniosacral II instructor sarcastically imitated some client reactions:

“I’ve seen G-d!” he said with a false Holy Roller tremor in his voice.

His phoney cover-up was the last straw. “Look, I’m a nice Jewish girl,” I interrupted. “I had never seen a Christian angel before, and you guys did NOT warn us about angels!” I told the class about Rachel’s friend—and that her true healing was not that I did the 10 Step Protocol properly but that she had found her love and spiritual protection.

The teacher brushed me off. “There are 40 students in this classroom,” he announced officiously, “And you are probably the ONLY one who has seen angels.”  With that he changed the topic.

I did not believe him. Was I more special than anyone else? In fact, at break-time, of the 5 craniosacral practitioners sitting closest to me, 4 of them confided in me that they had seen angels.

“Not only that,” said the 60-ish man sitting in front of me, “The clients can see them too.  And my population are tough people who are not given to spacey things. I work in a small town in Colorado, where I’ve known everyone for decades. I’m old enough to have known their parents, and I know their parents are in the room when I treat them.”

What do YOU think? Have you ever seen angels that heal? Love to hear!

About the Photo   Behold three “men” [angels] were standing above him. (Bereishit/Genesis 18:2)    Rashi: “…and Raphael, who healed Avraham/Abraham.”